uchwepheshe wepayipi

Iminyaka eyi-15 Yokukhiqiza

okuhlinzekwa kwamanzi i-hdpe pipe grade pe 100 ubukhulu lukathayela wepayipi

Incazelo emfushane:

Izifutho ikakhulukazi zifaka izifutho zensimbi, amalunga okwandiswa kukathayela, amashubhu wokushisa okushisayo, amabhokisi amafilimu e-diaphragm namathumbu wensimbi. Izinsimbi zensimbi zisetshenziselwa kakhulu ukunxephezela ukushisa kwepayipi, ukunciphisa ukushaqeka, ukumunca ukuguqulwa kwepayipi futhi njalonjalo. Zisetshenziswa kakhulu ku-petrochemical, insimbi, i-aerospace, imboni yamakhemikhali, amandla kagesi, usimende, ukusansimbi nezinye izimboni.Plastic nezinye izinto zokubhoboza ezithunyelwayo eziphakathi, ukufakwa kwamandla, amathuluzi emishini, imishini yasendlini neminye imikhakha inendima engenakuphikiswa .


Imininingwane yomkhiqizo

Amathegi womkhiqizo

Uhlobo lwezifutho

I-Bellows: Into enwebeka esetshenziselwa ukukala ingcindezi kuzinsimbi zokulinganisa ingcindezi.Kuyigobolondo elincane elinezindonga elincane elinezindonga elinobuningi bezimbumbulu ezinqamulelayo. Izifutho zinokunwebeka futhi zingakhiqiza ukufuduka ngaphansi kwesenzo sengcindezi, amandla e-axial, amandla ajikelezayo noma umzuzwana wokugoba.Bellows asetshenziswa kakhulu kuzinsimbi namamitha. Inhloso enkulu yezifutho ukuguqula ingcindezi ibe ukufuduka noma ukuphoqa kube yinto yokulinganisa yamamitha wokulinganisa ingcindezi.udonga lukathayela oluncane lucekeceke, ukuzwela kuphakeme, ububanzi bokulinganisa ngamashumi ePa kuya kumashumi e-MPa. izifutho zingasetshenziswa njengesici sokuhlukanisa ukuhlukanisa imidiya emibili noma ukuvimbela uketshezi oluyingozi ekungeneni esigabeni sokulinganisa sedivayisi.Ingasetshenziswa futhi njengengxenye yesinxephezelo, kusetshenziswa ukwehluka kwevolumu yayo ukunxephezela iphutha lokushisa Ngezinye izikhathi ibuye isetshenziswe njengezingxenye ezimbili zokuhlangana okunwebeka, njll. AbakwaBellows ngokwakhiwa kwezinto bangahlukaniswa ngezifutho zensimbi, izifutho ezingezona zensimbi izinhlobo ezimbili; Ngokuya ngesakhiwo singahlukaniswa sibe ungqimba olulodwa noluningi Izinsimbi zesendlalelo esisodwa zisetshenziswe ngaphezulu.Izifutho ezinemibala eminingi zinamandla aphezulu, ukuqina okuhle nokucindezeleka okuphansi futhi zisetshenziselwa izilinganiso ezibalulekile.Izinto ezenziwe ngezifutho ngokuvamile zethusi, ithusi, ibala insimbi encane, i-Monel alloy ne-nickel alloy.

Izinkomba zokusebenza

Songa ukuqina

Umthwalo odingekayo ukukhiqiza ukufuduka kweyunithi yensimbi noma enye into enwebekayo ibizwa ngokuthi ukuqina kwento futhi ngokuvamile ichazwa ngokuthi "K" .Uma izici ezinwebeka zento zingahambelani, ukuqina akusekho njalo, kepha kuguquka umthwalo okhulayo.Ukuthayipha izakhi zohlobo lokunwebeka kokusetshenziswa kobunjiniyela jikelele, isibonelelo sokuqina singakhawulelwa ku- +/- 50% .Ubulukhuni besifutho buhlukaniswe baba yi-axial rigidity, ukugoba ukuqina nokuqina kwe-torsional ngokuya ngezindawo ezahlukahlukene zomthwalo nokuhamba Ekusetshenzisweni kwezifutho, iningi lamandla umthwalo we-axial futhi ukufuduka kungukuhamba komugqa.Lokhu okulandelayo kuyizindlela eziyinhloko zokwakha nezindlela zokubala zokuqina kwe-axial kwezifutho:

1. Indlela yamandla yokubala ukuqina kwesibindi

2. Bala ukuqina kwezifutho ngefomula yobuciko

3. Ukubalwa kokuqina kwensimbi ngendlela yezinombolo

4.Indlela yokubala yobulukhuni ye-EJMA ejwayelekile

5. I-Japan indlela yokuqina yokubalwa kwe-TOYO

6. I-American Kellogg (indlela entsha) yokuqina kwendlela yokubala

Ngaphezu kwalezi zindlela zokubala zokuqina eziyisithupha ezingenhla, ziningi ezinye izindlela zokubala zokuqina kwangaphandle, ezingeke zethulwe lapha.Abasebenzi beMechanics ezweni lethu benze umsebenzi omningi ocwaningweni lwezobuciko kanye nasekuhlaziyweni kokuhlola izifutho, futhi bathole izithelo ezinhle Izindlela zokucwaninga eziyinhloko zimi ngale ndlela elandelayo:

(1) indlela yokuphambanisa

(2) Indlela yokuqala yepharamitha yokuhlanganiswa kwezinombolo

(3) Indlela yokulinganisa edidiyelwe

(4) Indlela ye-elemental finite element

Zonke izindlela ezingenhla zingasetshenziswa ukubala izifutho ngokunembe kakhudlwana. Noma kunjalo, ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwemfundiso ejulile nezindlela zezibalo, kunzima ukusebenzisa ubunjiniyela, futhi kunzima nokuyazi, ngakho-ke kudingeka kuqhutshekwe kudume.

Ubulukhuni bokubalwa kwezifutho zensimbi ezihlanganiswe nentwasahlobo evunguza

Ngenkathi kusetshenziswa, ukuqina kwezidingo ezinkulu, nokuqina kwensimbi yensimbi uqobo kuncane, kungacatshangelwa kuzinsimbi zangaphakathi noma ukucushwa kwangaphandle kwentwasahlobo yomoya. Ngale ndlela, hhayi kuphela ukuqina kwento yonke uhlelo lokunwebeka lungathuthukiswa, kepha futhi nephutha elibangelwe yi-hysteresis lingehliswa kakhulu.Ukusebenza okunwebeka kwalolu hlelo okunwebeka kuncike kakhulu kuzimpawu zentwasahlobo nokuzinza kwendawo ephumelelayo yezifutho.

Ukuqina kokugoba kwezifutho

Ukucindezela ukubalwa kwezifutho

Njengengxenye yokuvaleka nokunwebeka, izinsimbi zensimbi kufanele ziqale zihlangabezane nezimo zamandla, okusho ukuthi, ukucindezela kwayo okuphezulu akudluli ukucindezelwa okuvumelekile ngaphansi kwezimo ezinikeziwe.Ucindezelo oluvumelekile lungatholakala ngokuhlukanisa ukucindezela okukhulu ngento yokuphepha. Ngokuya ngezimo zokusebenza kwezifutho kanye nezidingo zokusetshenziswa kwayo, ingcindezi enkulu ingaba ngamandla okuvuna, ukucindezeleka okubucayi lapho izifutho zingazinzi, noma amandla okukhathala, njll Ukubala ukucindezela okukhulu kokusebenza kwezifutho, ukusatshalaliswa kwengcindezi odongeni lwezinsimbi kufanele kuhlaziywe.

Ingcindezi emiphongolweni ibangelwa ingcindezi yohlelo kanye nokuguquguquka kwezifutho.Ingcindezi ikhiqiza izingcindezi eziyindilinga (eziyindilinga) ezifubeni, nefilimu ye-radial nokugoba izingcindezi ezindongeni eziseceleni, emikhombeni naseziqongweni zamagagasi Igobolondo elincanyana elingakwazi ukumelana nokugoba kwesinye isikhathi libizwa ngokuthi ulwelwesi, futhi ingcindezi ebalwa ngaphandle kokugoba ibizwa nge- stress membrane. ezinye zingaphansi kwengcindezi yangaphandle, njengepayipi lokunwetshwa kokuhlanganiswa kanye nensimbi yezimo ezimeni eziningi izifutho ngaphansi kwengcindezi yangaphakathi, futhi zisetshenziswe ku-valve stem seal bellows ngaphansi kwengcindezi yangaphandle ngokuvamile lapha ikakhulu ihlaziya ukucindezeleka kwezifutho ngaphansi kwengcindezi yangaphakathi, ikhono lezifutho ngaphansi ingcindezi yangaphandle ngokubanzi iphakeme kunekhono langaphakathi lokumelana nokucindezela.Ngokusetshenziswa okubanzi kwezifutho, ukuhlaziywa okuningi nokucwaninga kanye ne-exp ukuqinisekiswa kwe-erimental kwenziwe ekucindezelekeni kwezifutho, futhi kuye kwaphakanyiswa amafomula amaningi wokubala, izinhlelo zokubala kanye namashadi okwakhiwa kobunjiniyela. izimo azenziwe lula kakhulu noma zizinhle kakhulu, ngakho-ke kunzima ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha nokuthembeka okusetshenziswayo, futhi izindlela eziningi azemukelwanga umphakathi wobunjiniyela. izindlela ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngokulandelayo:

1. Ukubalwa kwengcindezi yezifutho ngendlela yezinombolo

Uma ucabanga ukuthi zonke izigaxa zezifutho zisesimweni esifanayo, kufundwa ukubalwa kwesigamu esisodwa kuphela sesibalo. indlela yezinombolo ixazululwa ngokuya nge-equation engahambisani nomugqa ka-E.Lesnier yokuguquguquka kwe-axial symmetric yegobolondo elincanyana elijikelezayo elinobukhulu odongeni obuguquguqukayo. Kusetshenziswa umcabango omncane wegobolondo, kufaka phakathi: umcabango wokuthi ukushuba kuncane uma kuqhathaniswa nobubanzi obuyinhloko bokugoqana kwegobolondo eliyiminyaka; Ukucatshangelwa kobungqingili kanye ne-isotropy yezinto ezisetshenziswayo. Ngoba ekwakhiweni kwezifutho, ukugoqa, ukudweba kanye nokwenziwa kwepulasitiki okwenziwe ngokhula okwenziwe nge-billet kuzodala i-anisotropy kanye ne-inhomogeneity ku-mec. izakhiwo ze-hanical zento.

2. Indlela ye-American EJMA yokucindezela ukubala

Indawo ephumelelayo yezifutho ibalwa

Indawo ephumelelayo ingenye yemingcele yokusebenza eyisisekelo yezifutho, imele ikhono lezifutho ukuguqula ingcindezi ibe ngamandla agxishiwe, ekusetshenzisweni kwezifutho ukuguqula ingcindezi ibe amandla okukhipha okugxile, indawo esebenzayo iyipharamitha ebalulekile.

Lapho i-ripple isetshenziswa kuthuluzi lokulinganisa lamandla, ukuzinza kwendawo yayo esebenzayo kuzothinta ngqo ukunemba kwensimbi. indawo ayiguquki nezimo zokusebenza ngesikhathi sokusebenza.

1. Umqondo wendawo esebenzayo nokushintsha kwendawo esebenzayo

Indawo esebenza kahle iyindawo elinganayo lapho ingcindezi izosebenzisa amandla alinganayo e-axial Ngokuvamile, ngokwanda kwengcindezi yangaphakathi, indawo ephumelelayo yezifutho iba ncane, futhi indawo ngokwanda kwengcindezi yangaphandle, i indawo ephumelelayo iba nkulu.

2. Indawo esebenzayo evumayo yezifutho

Isilinganiso sokushintshwa kwevolumu kanye noshintsho oluhambelana nobude obufanele besisindo ngaphansi kwesenzo samandla wangaphandle noma umehluko wencindezi ubizwa ngokuthi indawo yevolumu esebenzayo.

3. Ukubalwa kwendawo ephumelelayo yezifutho

Izidingo zendawo ephumelelayo yezifutho nezindlela zazo zokubala zincike ekusetshenzisweni kwezifutho.Uma ipayipi likathayela lisetshenziselwa isinxephezelo esishisayo sezimpawu ze-elastomeric noma ukubhobhoza, ukubaluleka kwendawo esebenzayo kusetshenziselwa kuphela ukubala amandla we-axial kwezinsimbi ezakha kanye nokugxila ohlelweni olusetshenzisiwe.Kunomehluko othile phakathi kwamanani abaliwe futhi alinganisiwe endawo esebenzayo yezifutho.Ngokuvamile, ukusebenzisa ifomula ekhethekile ukubala indawo ephumelelayo yezifutho kungahlangabezana nezidingo.

Lapho i-ripple isetshenziswa kuthuluzi lokulinganisa lamandla kanye nepulatifomu yenkambu edinga ukuguqula ingcindezi ibe isenzo, indawo esebenzayo kufanele inqunywe ngokunembile futhi isilinganiso kufanele senziwe ngamunye ngamunye.

Ukuzwela okusongelayo

Imfucumfucu engaba khona yezifutho zensimbi nezinye izinto ezinwebekayo ezingaphansi komthwalo weyunithi ibizwa ngokuthi ukuzwela kwento.Ukuqina nokuzwela kuyizindlela eziyinhloko zokusebenza kwezifutho nezinye izinto ezinwebekayo, kepha kuyizinkulumo ezimbili ezihlukile zezici ezifanayo zensizakalo. izikhathi ezahlukahlukene, ukwenza lula ukuhlaziywa kwenkinga, noma yimaphi amapharamitha angasetshenziswa.

Indawo ephumelelayo yokugoqa

Enye inkomba ebalulekile yokusebenza iyindawo ephumelelayo yento e-elastic ebona ukuguqulwa kwamandla okuphoqelelwa noma ukuguqulwa kokucindezelwa ngamandla.Indawo esebenzayo yinani lamandla agxilile into e-elastic engaguqula ibe lapho ukufuduka kwayo kunguziro ngaphansi kwengcindezi yeyunithi.

Impilo yokusonga

Into enwebeka inezimo ezimbili lapho isebenza; Eyokuqala ukusebenza ngaphansi komthwalo othile nokuhamba, bese kugcina umthwalo nokufuduswa kungashintshi noma kushintsha okuncane, okwaziwa ngokuthi yi-static work; Elinye icala lokusetshenziswa ukuthi umthwalo nokufuduswa kuyashintshana umjikelezo oqhubekayo.I-elementi isesimeni sokusebenza se-cyclic.Amamodi wokonakala kwengxenye noma ukwehluleka ahlukile ngokuya ngesimo esisebenzayo.Into yethuluzi lokunwebeka kwensimbi isebenza ebangeni lokunwebeka, ngokuyisisekelo esimweni sokusebenza esimile, impilo yensizakalo kakhulu isikhathi eside, ngokuvamile kuze kube amashumi ezinkulungwane zezikhathi kuya kumakhulu ezinkulungwane zezikhathi.Izinto zeBellows ezisetshenziswa kwezobunjiniyela, kwesinye isikhathi zisebenza ebangeni le-elastoplastic noma kwesinye isimo sokucindezeleka, impilo ingamakhulu kuphela ezikhathi ezomile. , inani lemijikelezo, isikhathi nobuningi.

Impilo elinganiselwe ye-elementi enwebeka impilo elindelwe yesevisi enqunywe ngesikhathi sokuklanywa kwezinto, futhi kuyadingeka ukuthi i-elementi ayivunyelwe ukuvela ukukhathala, ukulimala noma ukwehluleka ngalesi sikhathi.

Ukugoqwa kokugoqwa

Ukugqama kubhekisa entweni ekungxenyeni ethile yengcindezi yangaphakathi nangaphandle ngaphansi kwesenzo ukuqinisekisa ukuthi akukho ukusebenza kokuvuza. Lapho izingxenye zohlobo lwe-bellows zisebenza, umgodi wangaphakathi ugcwele igesi noma okuphakathi kuketshezi, futhi kukhona ingcindezi ethile, ngakho-ke kufanele Izindlela zokuhlola ukubekwa uphawu zifaka ukuhlolwa kokufakwa uphawu kwengcindezi yomoya, ukuhlolwa kokuvuza, ukuhlolwa kwengcindezi ketshezi, amanzi anensipho noma i-helium mass spectrometer ukuvuza umtshina.

Imvamisa yemvelo ehlanganisiwe

Izinto ezinwebeka ezisetshenziswa embonini zivame ukubekwa ezingeni elithile lokudlidliza endaweni yokusebenza, futhi ezinye izinto zisetshenziswa njengezinto zokuzincibilikisa. imvamisa (ikakhulukazi imvamisa eyisisekelo) ekusondeleni kunoma yimuphi umthombo wokudlidliza ohlelweni, ukuze kugwenywe umonakalo odalwe yi-resonance.Izakhi zeBellows zisetshenziswe kabanzi emikhakheni ehlukahlukene. Ukuze ugweme ukulimala ebusweni bezinsimbi, imvamisa yemvelo yezifutho kufanele ibe ngaphansi kunemvamisa yokudlidliza kohlelo, noma okungenani i-50% iphakeme kunemvamisa yokudlidliza yohlelo.

Ukushisa kwensizakalo yokusonga

Izinsimbi zensimbi zisetshenziswa ezinhlotsheni eziningi zokushisa ngokuvamile zinikezwa ngaphambi kokwakhiwa nokwenziwa kwezingxenye ezinwebeka.Izinye izifutho zokusebenzisa ezikhethekile, umgodi ngokusebenzisa i-oxygen engamanzi (-196 ℃) noma izinga lokushisa eliphansi le-nitrogen, ukumelana nengcindezi efinyelela ku-25MPa. Inhlanganisela enkulu yokwandiswa kukathayela esetshenziselwa ukuxhumana kwenethiwekhi yepayipi (ubukhulu bokuqokwa kwesinye isikhathi ngaphezu kwe-LM) iyadingeka ukuthwala ingcindezi ye-4Mpa, ukumelana nokushisa okungu-400 ℃, futhi inokuqina okuthile kokumelana nokugqwala. ukumelana namazinga okushisa kwento enwebekayo esetshenzisiwe.Ngakho-ke, ngokwebanga lokushisa elisetshenziswayo lezinto ezinwebeka, khetha amapharamitha wokusebenza wokushisa afanele wezinto ezinwebeka, ukuze ucubungule futhi wakhe izingxenye ezifanelekayo zesifutho.

Imingcele yobuchwepheshe

Umthwalo wokuthwala ogoqiwe

Amanani wokulayisha alindelwe asetshenziswa ezifubeni zensimbi nezinye izinto ezinwebeka, njengamandla agxilwe ku-F, ingcindezi p nomzuzu M, njll. Ekusebenziseni izinsimbi zohlobo lwe-bellows, ngaphezu kwenani lomthwalo osetshenzisiwe elinikeziwe, kufanele futhi linikezwe ukuqondiswa nokuma kwesenzo somthwalo.Ngokwempahla yengcindezi, kuyadingeka futhi ukukhombisa ukuthi ngabe into enwebeka ingaphansi kwengcindezi yangaphakathi noma yangaphandle.

Inani lomthwalo elivunyelwe kakhulu noma inani eligcwele lesilinganiso sesisindo sensimbi nezinye izinto ezinwebekayo ngaphansi kwezimo zokusebenza ezijwayelekile.Kuyimvamisa inani elilindelwe lokuklama, noma inani ledizayini ebukeziwe ngemuva kokuhlolwa kwangempela kohlobo lomkhiqizo.

Umthamo wokuthwala womkhiqizo othile wokunwebeka lapho uvunyelwe ukweqa umthwalo olinganisiwe ngaphandle kokulimala, ukwehluleka noma ukungazinzi ekusebenzeni okuzenzekelayo noma ngesikhathi sokuhlolwa. umthwalo olinganisiwe.Izakhi zohlobo lweBellows ezisetshenziswa ekwakheni ngokuvamile zikhawulelwa ku-150% womthwalo olinganisiwe.Ngokuya ngezidingo zobunjiniyela, lapho kudingeka ukuphepha okukhulu, into enwebekayo esetshenzisiwe ayikuvumeli ukulayishwa ngokweqile, ngakho-ke umthwalo kufanele ube ngaphansi noma ilingana nenani lomthwalo olinganisiwe.

Ukugoqwa kokufuduswa kwesici

Ukushintshwa kwesimo sephoyinti elithile (ukuphela kwamahhala noma isikhungo) kuzinsimbi zensimbi kanye ne-elementi enwebekayo.Ngokwe-trajectory yayo yokunyakaza, ingahlukaniswa ngokufuduka okuhambisanayo nokufuduka kwe-angular.Ngaphansi kwesenzo somthwalo wangaphandle, insimbi yensimbi kungakhipha ukufuduka kwe-axial, ukushabalalisa kwe-angular kanye nokuhamba okuguqukayo.

Izinsimbi zensimbi nezinto ezinwebeka kumthwalo olinganisiwe obangelwe inani lokuhamba, okungukuthi, bavunyelwe ukukhiqiza ngaphansi kokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile kokufuduswa.

Zonke izinhlobo zezinto ezinwebeka zivunyelwe ukweqa umthamo wokuthwala wokulinganiswa kokufuduka ngomzuzu wokusebenza noma ngesikhathi sokuhlolwa. Esimweni sokuhamba ngokweqile, into enwebeka akufanele ilimale, ukwehluleka, ukungazinzi, njll. izingxenye, ukufuduka kokulayishwa ngokweqile kuvame ukukhawulelwa kuma-125% wokufuduka okulinganisiwe, futhi izifutho ezisetshenziswe kuphrojekthi kufanele zinqunywe ngokuya ngezimo zobunjiniyela nezinga lokuphepha.

Ukuziphatha okunwebeka kokugoqwa

Ubudlelwano phakathi kokufuduswa kwezifutho zensimbi nezinye izinto ezinwebekayo kuzinga lokushisa elinikeziwe nomthwalo osetshenzisiwe ubizwa ngokuthi yisici sokunwebeka, futhi kokubili ukufuduka nomthwalo kufanele kube phakathi kobubanzi bokunwebeka kwento yento. Izici ezinwebekayo zezifutho zingakhonjiswa ngesimo sezibalo ezisebenzayo, amatafula namagrafu.Izici zayo ezinwebeka zincike esakhiweni nakwimodi yokulayisha yezinto ezahlukahlukene ezinwebekayo.Izici ezinwebeka zento zingahambelana noma zingahambelani, futhi ukungahambisani futhi ihlukaniswe ngezici ezikhulayo nezinciphayo.

Izici ezinwebekayo zingenye yezinkomba zokusebenza eziyinhloko zezifutho nezinye izinto ezinwebeka.Izinto ezinwebeka ezisetshenziswa kuzinsimbi nakumadivayisi wokulinganisa ngokuvamile zenzelwe ngendlela yokuthi ukukhishwa kwento kusebudlelwaneni obuhambisanayo nepharamitha elinganisiwe (umthwalo Ngale ndlela, indlela elula yokukhulisa ukudlulisa ingasetshenziswa ukufeza isilinganiso esilinganayo sensimbi.

Ukugoqwa okusalile okusalile

Ukuguqulwa okusalile kwezifutho zensimbi nezinye izinto ezinwebekayo kubhekisa ekushintsheni kwezinto ngemuva kokulayisha futhi izinto ezinwebeka azikwazi ukubuyela endaweni yokuqala ngemuva kokukhipha isikhathi eside. ingxenye ihlobene nesimo sesevisi.Lapho ukufuduka kwempikiswano (noma ukucindezelwa) kukhuphuka kancane kuya kunani elithile lokuhamba, ukuguqulwa okusalayo kuzokwanda kakhulu.

Ukusonteka okusalile kuyipharamitha yokunquma ikhono lokuguqulwa kwento enwebeka. Ukuze uthole into ebucayi ebucayi, uma kwenzeka ukushiya kwenye indawo okuyinsalela enkulu ngemuva kokufinyelela inani elilinganisiwe lokufuduswa, kuzothinta ukunemba kokulinganisa kwensimbi. izingxenye (ezinjengezinhlanganisela zokukhulisa izifutho), kwesinye isikhathi ukuthola ukufuduka okukhulu, ukuze izinto zisebenze endaweni ye-elasto-plastic, kuzoba khona ukushiyeka okukhulu okusele.Uma ingahlangabezana nempilo ethile yesevisi futhi ingavunyelwa. Lapho-ke ukushiyeka okusalile akusabhekwa.

Ukugoqa ukuhlela lo mklamo wesigaba

Isisekelo sokwakhiwa kwensimbi yensimbi kuyipuleti kanye negobolondo lethiyori, imishini yokusebenza, izibalo zekhompiyutha njalonjalo. Kunemingcele eminingi ekwakhiweni kwezifutho. Ngenxa yokusetshenziswa okwehlukene kwezifutho ohlelweni, amaphuzu ayisihluthulelo womklamo nokubala ahlukile.Isibonelo, izifutho zisetshenziswa ekuphathweni kwezakhi zamandla, futhi indawo esebenzayo yezifutho iyadingeka ukuthi ingaguquguquki noma iguquke kancane ngaphakathi kobubanzi obusebenzayo, futhi nezimpawu zokunwebeka kwezifutho ziyadingeka ukuba zihambisane nezilinganiso zokulinganisa.I-vacuum switch tube njenge-vacuum seal, impahla yokuvala isikhala, ukufuduka kwe-axial kanye nokukhathala kwempilo yezifutho kuyadingeka. kufanele kube nokumelana nengcindezi ethile, ukumelana nokugqwala, ukumelana namazinga okushisa, ukufuduka kokusebenza nokukhathala impilo.Ngokuya kwezici zesakhiwo sezifutho, izifutho zingathathwa njengegobolondo eliyindilinga, igobolondo lesigaxa noma ipuleti eliyindilinga. futhi ukwakheka nokubalwa kwegobolondo eliyindilinga, igobolondo lesigaxa esicaba noma ipuleti lendandatho.

Amapharamitha abaliwe ukuqina, ingcindezi, indawo esebenzayo, ukungazinzi, ukufuduka okuvumelekile, ukumelana nengcindezi nempilo yesevisi.

Ukusonga ingcindezi ukumelana

Ukumelana nengcindezi kungumngcele obalulekile wokusebenza kwesifutho.Ama-bellows ekamelweni lokushisa, ifomu le-wave likwazi ukumelana nengcindezi ephezulu ye-static ngaphandle kokuguquguquka kwepulasitiki, okungukuthi, ukumelana okuphezulu kwengcindezi yezifutho ngaphansi kwezimo ezijwayelekile, izifutho zisengcindezelweni ethile (ingcindezi yangaphakathi noma yangaphandle pressure) umsebenzi, ngakho-ke kufanele umelane nengcindezi kuyo yonke inqubo yokusebenza ngaphandle kokuguqulwa kwepulasitiki.

Ukumelana kwengcindezi kwezifutho empeleni kungokomandla wezifutho.Isihluthulelo sokubala ukuhlaziywa kokucindezeleka, okungukuthi, ukuhlaziywa kwengcindezi odongeni lwe-bellows inqobo nje uma ukucindezela kuphuzu lokucindezeleka okuphezulu odongeni lwe-bellows kwenza ingeqi emandleni esivuno sokwaziswa, ingcindezi yezifutho ngeke ifinyelele ekumelaneni kwayo nengcindezi.

Izifutho ezifanayo kwezinye izimo zokusebenza ziyafana, ukuzinza kwengcindezi yangaphandle kungcono kunengcindezi yangaphakathi, ngakho-ke ukumelana okuphezulu kwengcindezi kuphakeme kunokucindezela kwangaphakathi lapho kwenziwa ingcindezi yangaphandle.

Lapho izifutho zilungiswa kuzo zombili iziphetho, uma kufakwa ingcindezi eyanele engxenyeni engaphakathi, izifutho zingalimala ngokuqhuma endaweni. Inani lengcindezi ngaphakathi kwesifutho lapho izifutho ziqala ukuqhuma ibizwa ngokuthi ingcindezi yokuqhuma. ipharamitha yokuhlukanisa amandla amakhulu okucindezela izifutho.Ngesikhathi senqubo yonke yokusebenza kwezifutho, ingcindezi yokusebenza incane kakhulu kunaleyo eqhumayo, ngaphandle kwalokho imfutho izokwephuka futhi ilimale.

Lapho ubude bezindwangu bungaphansi noma bulingana nobubanzi obungaphandle, imiphumela ebaliwe isondelene nengcindezi yokuqhuma kwangempela.Ingcindezi yangempela yokuqhuma iphansi kakhulu ngenxa yezinsimbi ezinde ezincanyana.Ingcindezi yokuqhuma imayelana nezikhathi ezi-3 ~ 10 zokuvumelekile ingcindezi yokusebenza.

Ukusimama kokugoqana

Lapho yomibili imikhawulo yezifutho ikhawulisiwe, uma ingcindezi eku-bellows inyuka iye kunani elithile elibucayi, izifutho zizobe zingazinzi.

Ukugoqwa kokuhamba okuvumelekile

Okwezifutho ezisebenza esimweni sokucindezelwa, ukufuduka okuphezulu kokucindezelwa kwalo kungukuthi: izifutho ezingaphansi kwesenzo sengcindezi, ukucindezelwa koxhumana naye phakathi kwensimbi kungakhipha inani eliphakeme lokufuduswa, elaziwa nangokuthi isakhiwo esivunyelwe ukufuduka okuphezulu, kulingana ubude bensimbi bukhululekile nokwehluka okuphezulu kokuminyaniswa kobude.

Ukufuduswa okuphezulu iziphepho ezingakuthola ngaphandle kokuguquguquka kwepulasitiki kubizwa ngokufuduka okuvumelekile kwezifutho.

Ipayipi likathayela lizokhiqiza ukushiyeka okusalile enqubeni yokusebenza okusebenzayo, ukusonteka okusalile kubizwa nangokuthi ukusonteka unomphela noma ukusetshenzwa kwepulasitiki, okonakala kukapayipi kukathayela ngaphansi kwesenzo samandla noma ingcindezi, lapho amandla noma ingcindezi ngemuva kokwehliswa, ipayipi likathayela lingabuyisi isimo sokuqala sesenzeko sibizwa ngokuthi ukusonteka okusalile, ukusonteka okusalile kuvame ukusebenzisa ipayipi likathayela ukubuyisela indawo yokuqala yobuningi obizwa nangokuthi i-zero offset.

Ubudlelwano phakathi kokufuduswa kwamabellows ne-zero offset. Ukushona okusalile kwezifutho esigabeni sokuqala sokufuduka kwezifutho kuncane kakhulu, okuvame ukuba ngaphansi kokuvunyelwa okungu-zero okuvunyelwe kuzinga le-bellows, kungakhathalekile ukuthi kunjani ukungezwani noma ukucindezelwa. kunani elithile lokufuduswa, kuzodala ukwanda okungazelelwe kwenani le-zero offset, okukhombisa ukuthi izifutho zizokhiqiza ukushiyeka okukhulu okusalayo, ngemuva kwalokho Uma ukubekwa kwenye indawo kukhula kancane, ukushiyeka okusalile kuzokwanda kakhulu. Ngakho-ke, imvamisa ngokuvamile akufanele yeqe lokhu kususwa, ngaphandle kwalokho izokwehlisa kakhulu ukunemba kwayo, ukuzinza, ukuthembeka nempilo yesevisi.

Ukuhamba kokuvunyelwa kokuvunyelwa kokuvunyelwa esimweni sokucindezelwa kukhulu kunesimo sokungezwani, ngakho-ke izifutho kufanele zenzelwe ukuthi zisebenze esimweni sokucindezelwa ngangokunokwenzeka. ukufuthwa kwento efanayo nokucaciswa okufanayo kuphindwe izikhathi eziyi-1.5 ukufuduka okuvumelekile kokuqina.

Ukufuduka okuvumelekile kuhlobene nemingcele ye-geometrical dimension kanye nezinto ezibonakalayo zesifutho. impahla kanye nobukhulu bodonga lwezifutho.Ngaso leso sikhathi, ukujula kwegagasi okuhlobene nobukhulu begagasi nakho kunethonya elithile kukho.

Impilo yokusonga

Impilo yezifutho yisikhathi esifushane kakhulu sokusebenza noma inani lemijikelezo engaqinisekisa ukusebenza okujwayelekile lapho isetshenziswa ngaphansi kwezimo zokusebenza.Isistimu yokufaka uphawu enwebeka eyakhiwe ngezifutho ivame ukusebenza ngaphansi kwesimo semithwalo ehlukahlukene yemijikelezo ethe xaxa nokufuduswa okukhulu, ngakho-ke Ukubaluleka okukhulu kokunquma impilo yesevisi yezifutho.Ngoba umsebenzi wezifutho uhlukile, izidingo zempilo yenkonzo yawo azifani.

(1) lapho ipayipi likathayela lisetshenziselwa ukukhokhela ukuphambuka kwesikhundla okubangelwe ukufakwa kohlelo lwamapayipi, kwanele ukudinga izikhathi ezimbalwa kuphela zokuphila kwalo.

(2) izifutho zisetshenziswa kuzilawuli ze-thermostat ezinemvamisa ephezulu yokushintsha, futhi impilo yazo kufanele ifinyelele ezikhathini eziyi-10,000 ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zokusetshenziswa.

(3) lapho izifutho zisetshenziselwa ukushintshwa kwe-vacuum njengezimpawu zokuvala, impilo yabo kufanele ifike ezikhathini ezingama-30000 ukuqinisekisa umsebenzi ojwayelekile.

Kulezi zibonelo ezintathu ezingenhla ziyabonakala, ngenxa yokusetshenziswa kwezimo ezahlukahlukene, izifutho zidinga umehluko omkhulu empilweni yesevisi.Impilo yezifutho ihlobene nezici zokukhathala zezinto ezikhethiwe, futhi kuya ngosayizi ingcindezi eyinsalela, ukuminyana kwengcindezi kanye nekhwalithi yesimo se-bellows.Ngaphezu kwalokho, impilo yesevisi ihlobene nezimo zokusebenza kwe-bellows.Isibonelo: izifutho ezisebenza ukufuduka, ingcindezi, izinga lokushisa, indawo yokusebenza, izimo zokudlidliza, ibanga lemvamisa , izimo zomthelela, njll.

Ubude bempilo yezifutho buxhomeke ekucindezelekeni okuphezulu okukhiqizwa enqubeni yokusebenza.Ukuze unciphise ukucindezeleka, kutholakala ngokuvamile ngokunciphisa ukufuduka okusebenzayo kwezifutho nokunciphisa ingcindezi yokusebenza.Ukufuduswa kokusebenza kwezifutho kufanele kube ngaphansi kwengxenye ukufuduka kwayo okuvumelekile kanye nengcindezi yayo yokusebenza kufanele ibe ngaphansi kwengxenye yengcindezi yokumelana nezifutho ekwakhiweni okujwayelekile.

Ukuhlolwa kwezifutho kufakazele ukuthi uma izifutho zisebenza ngokuya ngemininingwane engenhla, impilo yayo yokusebenza kwenhlabathi eyisisekelo ingafinyelela cishe izikhathi ezingama-50 000.

Ngokuya ngemvelo ehlukile yengcindezi yokusebenza, ukufuduka okuvumelekile kwezifutho nakho kuhlukile ekuvuthweni okujwayelekile kuthwala kuphela i-axial load (ukungezwani noma ingcindezi), ukufuduswa kwayo okuvumelekile kungakhethwa phakathi kuka-10% ~ 40% wobude obusebenzayo be- izifutho; Lapho izifutho zifakwa kumandla aminyene we-lateral, umzuzwana we-torsional noma amandla ahlanganisiwe, ukufuduka okuvumelekile kwezifutho kufanele kuncishiswe ngokufanele.

Ukusebenzisa izifutho ezinemigqa eminingi kunganciphisa ukuqina nokucindezeleka okubangelwa ukusonteka, ngakho-ke impilo yezifutho ingathuthukiswa kakhulu.

Impilo yesevisi yezifutho izohluka uma ezinye izimo zilingana futhi nezici zokusebenza kwengcindezi (imithwalo engaguquguquki noma eshintshanayo) yehlukile.Kusobala ukuthi impilo yezifutho ngaphansi kwemithwalo eshintshanayo imfushane kunaleyo engaphansi kwemithwalo engaguquguquki.

Goqa ukuze uhlele lolu hlelo lokusebenza lwesigaba

Ipayipi likathayela lensimbi ne-cooler epholile, ukusetshenziswa kwezifutho ekupholiseni injini yangaphakathi yomlilo kuphethiloli nakudizili oyinjini opholile noma phakathi kwamapayipi amabili wokufakwa kwepuleti yempande engu-1-1000 enezinhlamvu ezi-convex-concave shape metal lukathayela, ngokwamukela indlela Inwebisa indlela, i-welding kufanele igcinwe kupuleti leshubhu ngakolunye uhlangothi, eliguqula ukugeleza kwendawo yokupholisa, ukwenza ngcono ukushisa kokudlulisa ukushisa, Khulisa ukusebenza kahle kokudlulisa ukushisa. izindleko, ukusebenza okuthembekile, ukusebenza kahle kokudlulisa ukushisa, akukho ukukala, impilo ende nokucindezela okushisayo okuncane.

1, ingcindezi ngokusho kwengcindezi yangempela yokusebenza kwepayipi, bese ubuza ububanzi obubizwa nge-ripple ne-gauge yengcindezi, unqume ukuthi ungalusebenzisa yini uhlobo lwensimbi engagqwali.

2, ubukhulu be-hose ubukhulu bokuzisholo, khetha uhlobo lwesihlanganisi (ikakhulukazi uxhumano lwe-flange, ukuxhumana okuhlanganisiwe, ukuxhumana okusheshayo) nosayizi, ubude be-hose.

3, ngokusho kwesimo sokusebenzisa i-hose, bhekisa ekusetshenzisweni okufanele nasekufakweni kwepayipi lensimbi kanye ne-hose ekuxazululeni ubude obuhle besinxephezelo.Cal bolele the hose in a various states states and the minimum bending number and minimum bending irediyasi yepayipi, bese ukhetha ubude obulungile bethayi bese uyifaka kahle.

4.Ukushisa okusebenzayo nobubanzi bemaphakathi ku-hose lokushisa; Izinga lokushisa eliphakeme lapho i-hose lisebenza khona.Ekushiseni okuphezulu, ngokusho kokulingana kokusebenza kokushisa kokushisa kwengcindezi yensimbi yensimbi ekushiseni okuphezulu, ingcindezi ngemuva kokulungiswa kokushisa izimisele ukuthola ibanga lengcindezi elifanele.

5. Izici zamakhemikhali zaphakathi nendawo ezithunyelwa ku-hose ophakathi zinqunywa ngokuya ngethebula lepharamitha lokumelana nokugqwala kwempahla yepayipi ukunquma ukwaziswa kwezingxenye ezahlukahlukene zepayipi.

6. I-vacuum hose isetshenziswa kakhulu ekukhiqizeni i-monocrystalline silicon ukufeza i-vacuum engemihle

Ikakhulu esetshenziswa ibhande lensimbi

Izinsimbi zebhande lensimbi, ezaziwa nangokuthi ibhande lensimbi eliqinisiwe i-polyethylene spiral bellows, luhlobo lwamapayipi odonga lwesakhiwo olunamandla amakhulu we-polyethylene (PE) njenge-matrix (ungqimba lwangaphakathi nolwangaphandle) nobuso obugqoke ibhande lensimbi elinamathelayo. Isakhiwo sodonga lweshubhu sakhiwe izingqimba ezintathu: ungqimba lwangaphakathi luyindonga eqinile eqhubekayo PE tube yangaphakathi, ishubhu elingaphakathi lilondekile (elenziwe ngopuleti lwensimbi lube "V" isimo) somzimba wokuqinisa we-wavy wensimbi womzimba, ku-wavy steel Umzimba we-strip ukuqiniswa uhlanganiswe nengqimba yangaphandle ye-polyethylene, ukuze kuhlanganiswe yonke imishanguzo evunguza. Isakhiwo esijwayelekile siyakhonjiswa esithombeni.Imodulus enwebeka yensimbi icishe iphindwe ka-200 kunaleyo ye-polyethylene (i-elastic modulus yensimbi yensimbi ngo-190000 MPa ), Kuhlanganiswe nezinzuzo zensimbi nepulasitiki ngokusobala kufinyelela ukuqina okuphezulu, ukusetshenziswa okuphansi, indlela ekahle yokuqina okuphezulu, amandla aphezulu ensimbi nezakhiwo zepulasitiki ezinhle njengokumelana nokubola , gqoka ukumelana nokuzivumelanisa nezimo ngokomzimba, udlale ngokunenzuzo lezi zici ezimbili, Wenzele ukusilela kwalezi zici ezimbili, futhi uzuze ubunye bokusebenza okuphezulu nezindleko eziphansi.


  • Langaphambilini
  • Olandelayo:

  • IMIKHIQIZO Ehlobene